While researching for Tour To Hell, I came across an obscure but interesting convict, Colin Hunter, who was charged with ‘bush ranging’ on 6 February 1802. This is the earliest reference to the term bushranging I’ve located, three years older than the most commonly cited first-known mention (‘bush-rangers’ in the Sydney Gazette, 17.2.1805). There is an earlier one claimed (an 1801 manuscript by James Elder which calls a gang of convict runaways ‘Bushrangers’), but I’ve yet to see the original and the source citing it didn’t check out.

Even so, Hunter’s court appearance may be the earliest usage of ‘bushranging’ as a criminal offence, although the sense was no more than being illegally at large. His punishment was 100 lashes.

The term ‘bushranger’ obviously originated in the colony’s early years to define white people who left the settlements to wander the bush. As most doing this were runaway convicts, the term had criminal associations from the outset, even though early on it was also sometimes used for anyone skilled in bushcraft.

Over time the definition narrowed to denote outback banditry, as runaways tended to support themselves by theft. The title ‘bushranger’ has since been retrospectively applied to outlaws such as the First Fleet runaway John ‘Black’ Caesar, whose career predates the word. Caesar is usually called our first bushranger, probably because he was the first runaway to carry a gun, but Colin Hunter may have a pedantic technical claim to the title thanks to the wording of his charge in 1802.

Sydney in 1802. By W.S. Blake. Courtesy National Library of Australia (nla.pic-an6016088-v)

So who was Colin Hunter? Unusually, he came to Australia from Africa, as a soldier stationed at the Cape of Good Hope. The convict transport Royal Admiral, which arrived (via Cape Town) in November 1800, lists him in an addition to its indent as one of nine Cape soldiers ‘to be sent to New South Wales as convicts’.  His crime was noted simply as ‘felony’, his sentence unrecorded.

However, a later amendment to this list reveals that three of these soldiers (John Smith, Thomas Rice and William Conway) ‘did duty on board HM Ship Porpoise’, which reached Sydney a couple of weeks before the Royal Admiral. In other words, instead of joining the Royal Admiral at Cape Town as convicts they were put to work as soldiers on the HMS Porpoise. Hunter was probably recalled to this military duty too – the 1806 Colonial Muster has him as ‘Coll Hunter, Cape soldier’ who ‘came free’ on the Porpoise, employed by John Bishop.

Hunter’s status in the colony – flogged as a bushranging runaway in 1802 yet listed as a free arrival in 1806 – is rather enigmatic. Then, in July 1808, the Sydney Gazette describes him as a ‘servant of the Crown’ (that is, a convict) who has absconded from the Hawkesbury farm of Thomas Rickerby. The notice cautions against ‘harbouring or employing him on pain of prosecution’.

Curiouser and curiouser: just over a year later he’s back in the Gazette, now one of 14 men due to depart the colony in the vessel Endeavour. However, it appears he didn’t go. While we can’t rule out journalistic error (i.e. the listing was wrong) or identity theft (more than one man used the name), it seems Hunter was either denied permission to leave, or changed his mind. Had his Cape sentence expired by 1809? Did his unconventional secondment to the Porpoise give him an opportunity to pass himself off as a free man?

However, there’s no doubt that Hunter got into serious trouble over the next three years. By 1812-13 he was up at Newcastle, a penal outpost for colonial re-offenders. Paperwork for this transfer also notes him as a Porpoise arrival. He had escaped Newcastle by March 1813, and three years later was known to be bushranging with a man named George Fuller.

Newcastle penal outpost in 1812, when Colin Hunter was sent there

In September 1816 this pair recruited two convict farm servants to raid the property of John Miller at Canterbury (now a suburb in Sydney’s inner-west). On the evening of September 30th, Miller was relaxing by his fireside with his wife and four children. Four strangers – two armed – suddenly burst through the farmhouse door. Miller rose to his feet in alarm and was immediately shot dead by one of the intruders. Ignoring the terrified screams of Mrs Miller, the bushrangers threatened her life and proceeded to pillage the house.

At first Hunter blamed his accomplice Thomas Dooley for the shooting, but the others soon found that Hunter’s fowling piece had been fired. Later in court Hunter claimed his gun went off by accident. This may have been true, but it didn’t stop the plundering – even the children’s clothes were stolen.

With a free pardon and fifty pounds offered for the bushrangers, it wasn’t long before they were rounded up. Colin Hunter, Thomas Dooley and Michael Ryan were hanged in Sydney for murder and robbery on November 4th, 1816. Fuller saved himself by turning informer. The hanged men were suspended for an hour before their bodies went to the surgeon for dissection, standard legal procedure if the judge did not order gibbeting after execution.

So ended a colourful, unusual and distinctly inglorious colonial career. First bushranger or not, he was possibly the only one ever named Colin, a very rare name in colonial times.

Advertisements